Words and Images: An Essay on the Origin of Ideas, Oxford University Press, 2011.

Conditionals in Context, MIT Press, 2005.

Words without Meaning, MIT Press, 2003.

Thinking Out Loud: An Essay on the Relation between Thought and Language, Princeton University Press, 1994.



Abstracts of selected papers

“On the Difference between Realistic and Fantastic Imagining," Erkenntnis, on-line first,

“Against the Speaker-intention Theory of Demonstratives," Linguistics and Philosophy 42, 2019: 109–129.

“Inner Speech as the Internalization of Outer Speech”, in Peter Langland-Hassan and Agustín Vicente, eds., Inner Speech: New Voices, Oxford University Press, 2018, pp. 53–77. DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198796640.003.0003

“Do Perceptions Justify Beliefs? The Argument from ‘Looks’”, in J. Gersel, R. T. Jensen, M. S. Thaning and S. Overgaard, eds., In Light of Experience: Essays on Reason and Perception, Oxford University Press, 2018, pp. 141-160. DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198809630.003.0007

“Grounding Assertion and Acceptance in Mental Imagery”, in Ondřej Beran, Vojtěch Kolman, Ladislav Koreň, eds., From rules to meanings. New essays on inferentialism, Routledge, 2018, pp. 49–62.

“Open Texture and Schematicity as Arguments for Non-referential Semantics”, in Sarah-Jane Conrad and Klaus Petrus, eds., Meaning, Context, and Methodology, De Gruyter Mouton, 2017, pp. 13–30.

“Metacognitive Deficits in Categorization Tasks in a Population with Impaired Inner Speech” (as second author, after Peter Langland-Hassan, along with Michael J. Richardson, Aimee Dietz, and Frank R. Faries), Acta Psychologica 118 (2017): 62–74.

“Three Kinds of Nonconceptual Seeing-As”, Review of Philosophy and Psychology (special issue edited by Robyn Carston and Kepa Korta) 8 (2017): 763–779.

“Visual Imagery in the Thought of Monkeys and Apes”, in Jacob Beck and Kristin Andrews, eds., Routledge Handbook of Philosophy and Animal Minds, Routledge 2017, pp. 25–33.

“The Mind-Independence of Contexts for Knowledge-Attributions” (as second author, with Giovanni Mion as first author), in Jonathan Ichikawa, ed., Routledge Handbook of Epistemic Contextualism, Routledge, 2017, pp. 455-464.

"The Illusion of Semantic Reference", in Andrea Bianchi, ed., On Reference, Oxford University Press, 2015, pp. 21-39. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198714088.001.0001

“Presuppositions as Anaphoric Duality Enablers”, Topoi 35, 2016: 133–144. (Special issue on Presuppositions, edited by Filippo Domaneschi).

“Précis of Words and Images” and “Replies to Matthen, Weiskopf and Wikforss”, Analysis 75, 2015, 81–83, 121–131.

"How Many Bare Demonstratives are There in English?", Linguistics and Philosophy 37, 2015: 291-314.

"Inexplicit Thoughts", in Laurence Goldstein, ed., Brevity, Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 74-90. DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199664986.003.0005

"Logical Nihilism in Contemporary French Philosophy", Teorema 32 (2013): 65-79.

"Perception without Propositions", in John Hawthorne and Jason Turner, eds., Philosophical Perspectives 26: Philosophy of Mind, Blackwell, 2012: 19-50.

"Semantics and Pragmatics", in Delia Graff Fara and Gillian Russell, eds., Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Language Routledge, 2012, pp. 18-28.

"Indirect Discourse, Relativism, and Contexts that Point to Other Contexts", in François Recanati, Isidora Stojanovic, Neftali Villanueva, eds., Context-dependence, Perspective and Relativity in Language and Thought, Mouton 2010.

"What Tipper is Ready for: A Semantics for Incomplete Predicates", Noûs 46 (2012): 61-85.

"Contexts in Formal Semantics", Blackwell Philosophy Compass 5 (2010): 568-578.

"Linguistic Practice and False-belief Tasks" (as second author, with Matthew Van Cleave as first author), Mind and Language 25 (2010): 298-328.

"Global Domains versus Hidden Indexicals", Journal of Semantics 27 (2010): 243-270.

"Against Accommodation: Heim, van der Sandt, and the Presupposition Projection Problem", in John Hawthorne, ed., Philosophical Perspectives, 22, Philosophy of Language, Blackwell Publishing, 2008, pp. 171-205.

"Zero Tolerance for Pragmatics", Synthese 165 (2008): 359-371. (Special issue on the semantics/pragmatics distinction, edited by Isidora Stojanovic.).

"On the Alleged Priority of Thought over Language", in Savas L. Tsohatzidis, ed., John Searle's Philosophy of Language: Force, Meaning, and Thought, Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 125-142.

"A Critique of the Similarity Space Theory of Concepts", Mind and Language 22 (2007): 317-345.

"The Circle of Deference Proves the Normativity of Semantics", Rivista di Estetica (special issue: essays in honor of Diego Marconi) 34 (2007): 181-198.

"Against Stepping Back: A Critique of Contextualist Approaches to the Semantic Paradoxes", The Journal of Philosophical Logic 35 (2006): 393-422

"Scientific Realism as an Issue in Semantics", in Patrick Greenough and Michael Lynch, eds., Truth and Realism, Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 125-136.

"Semantics for Deflationists", in JC Beall and Bradley Armour-Garb, eds., Deflationism and Paradox, Oxford University Press (2005), pp. 148-176.

"The Belief-Desire Law", Facta Philosophica 7 (2005): 121-144.

"On the Evidence for Prelinguistic Concepts", Theoria (Spain) 54 (2005): 287-297.

"Attitudes without Psychology", Facta Philosophica 5 (September 2003): 239-256.

"Truth, Propositions and Context", in Artur Rojszczak, Jacek Cachro and Gabriel Kurczewski, eds., Philosophical Dimensions of Logic and Science. Selected Comtributed Papers from the 11th International Congress of Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy and Science, Kluwer, 2003, pp. 277-287.

"Social Externalism and Linguistic Communication", in María-José Frápolli and Esther Romero, eds., Meaning, Basic Self-Knowledge and Mind: Essays on Tyler Burge, CSLI Publications, 2003, pp. 1-33.

"Situated Inference versus Conversational Implicature", Noûs 35 (June 2001): 163-189.

"T-Schema Deflationism versus Gödel's First Incompleteness Theorem", Analysis 61 (April 2001): 129-136.

"Deflationism and Logic", Facta Philosophica 1: 1 (October 1999): 167-198.

"What is a Context of Utterance?", Philosophical Studies 91 (August 1998): 149-172.

"Universal Instantiation: A Study of the Role of Context in Logic", Erkenntnis 46 (March 1997): 185-214.

"Domain of Discourse", Mind 106 (January 1997): 1-32.

"A New Skeptical Solution", Acta Analytica 14 (1995): 113-129.

"An Extraterrestrial Perspective on Conceptual Development", Mind and Language 8 (Spring 1993): 105-130.

"The Lockean Theory of Communication", Noûs 26 (Fall 1992): 303-324.

"Mental Content and the Division of Epistemic Labor", Australasian Journal of Philosophy 69 (September 1991): 302-318.

"Semantics without Reference", Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 31 (Summer 1990): 437-461.

"How to Learn a Language Like a Chimpanzee", Philosophical Psychology 3 (March 1990): 31-53.

"Objective Interpretationism", Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 69 (June 1988): 136-151.

"Conditionals in Context", Erkenntnis 27 (November 1987): 293-321.

"Mind and Chance", The Canadian Journal of Philosophy 17 (September 1987): 533-552.

"Language as Tool", The American Philosophical Quarterly 24 (January 1987): 47-58.

"The Principle of Charity", Synthese 69 (October 1986): 1-25.



“Étienne Bonnot de Condillac,” in Margarert Cameron, Benjamin Hill, and Robert J. Stainton, eds., Sourcebook in the History of Philosophy of Language. Springer, 2017, pp. 773-4.

“The Problem of Context-relativity in Semantics,” Grazer Philosophische Studien 93 (2016): 329–333.

Interview of Christopher Gauker, conducted by Bruno Mölder and published in Estonian translation in Vikerkaar Kultuuriajakiri 3, 2015: 75-80, 90-92.

Review of Christoph Hoerl, Teresa McCormack and Sarah Beck, Understanding Counterfactuals, Understanding Causation, Mind 122 (April 2013): 540-544.

"What Do Your Senses Say? On Burge's Theory of Perception", Grazer Philosophische Studien 85 (2012): 311-323.

"Concepts are not Icons", Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (June 2011). (1000 word review of Carey, The Origin of Concepts.)

Review of Stefano Predelli, Contexts, The Journal of Pragmatics 38 (2006): 1360-1365.

Review of Herman Cappelen and Ernie Lepore, Insensitive Semantics: A Defense of Semantic Minimalism and Speech Act Pluralism, Mind 115 (2006): 399-403.

Review of Wayne A. Davis, Expression, Meaning and Thought, Journal of Pragmatics, 37 (2005): 955-959.

"No Conceptual Thought without Language", Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2002): 687. (Commentary on target article by Carruthers.)

"Problemi per la Concezione Tradizionale della Comunicazione Linguistica", Esercizi Filosofici, Annuario del Dipartimento di Filosofia, Università di Trieste 6 (2002). (Translated by Ambra Baesso.)

"Object Identity: What's the Question?", Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive 20 (2001): 101-106.

Review of Jan Nuyts and Eric Pederson, Language and Concepualization, Philosophical Psychology (March 2000): 141-144.

"Intelligibility in Semantics: Reply to van Deemter", Mind, 107 (1998): 447-50.

"Are There Wordlike Concepts Too?" The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (February 1998): 70-71. (Commentary on target article by Ruth Millikan.)

"Building Block Dilemmas", The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (February 1998): 26-27. (Commentary on target article by Schyns, Goldstone and Thibaut.)

"A Logic of Assertibility in Context", in Paul Weingartner, Gerhard Schurz and Georg Dorn, eds., The Role of Pragmatics in Contemporary Philosophy: Papers of the 20th International Wittgenstein Symposium, Vol. 1 (Kirchberg am Wechsel, Austria, 1997), pp. 276-282.

"The Concept of Consciousness in the Theory of Language", a critical review of Wallace Chafe, Discourse, Consciousness and Time, The American Journal of Psychology 109 (1996): 486-491.

Review of Ruth Garrett Millikan, White Queen Psychology and Other Essays for Alice, Philosophical Psychology 8 (1995): 305-309.

Review of C. R. Gallistel, ed., Animal Cognition, Philosophical Psychology 7 (1994): 515-519.

"Holism without Meaning: A Critical Review of Fodor and LePore's, Holism: A Shopper's Guide," Philosophical Psychology 6 (1993): 441-449.

"If Children Thought Like Adults: A Critical Review of Markman, Categorization and Naming in Children, and Keil, Concepts, Kinds and Cognitive Development", Philosophical Psychology 4 (1991): 139-146.

Review of Devitt and Sterelny's Language and Reality, Teaching Philosophy 10 (September 1987): 269-271.


On-line publications

Conditionals, in Oxford Bibliographies Online.

Articles on Paul Grice and Wilfrid Sellars in the on-line Dictionary of the Philosophy of Mind (Washington University).

Article on Language and Thought in A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind (Società Italiana Filosofia Analitica).

Review of Andrea Iacona, Propositions, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.

Review of Jeremy Wanderer, Robert Brandom, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.